Movement of People
The period from 1750 to 1901 saw a large increase in the number of people moving around the world. You may recall from previous lessons that, for the most part, these movements were directly related to the Industrial Revolution and the expansion of many European powers into new territories. To recap, the Industrial Revolution began in Britain around 1750 and spread to Europe, North America and other parts of the world over the course of the 18th and 19th centuries. The major social and economic changes caused by industrialisation, both directly and indirectly, contributed to the mass movement of peoples in this period.
Some of these movements of people were voluntary. North America and Australia became popular migrant destinations for people to improve their lives. However, the movement of people also came at a great cost to many other people. Demand for labour was high and this led to one of the worst abuses of human rights in history; slavery. The cruel practice of slavery saw Africans forced from their villages and shipped to the Americas to work on cotton, sugar and tobacco plantations. In Britain, as crime rates increased, convicts were forcibly transported to the colonies in North America and then Australia.
Students will continue investigating the influence of the Industrial Revolution on the experiences of the movement of peoples throughout the world, focusing on the transatlantic slave trade and convict transportation. Students will:
- Identify the movement of slaves out of Africa and the movement of free settlers and convicts out of Britain, from their time of transportation to their arrival in their destination country.
- Investigate the main features of slavery, including transportation. Understanding the reasons behind slavery within civilisations by exploring elements and details of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade through a variety of sources.
- Evaluate the experiences of slaves, convicts and free settlers, through personal accounts of their experiences; including their time of capture and/or departure, their journey abroad, and their reactions upon arrival in their destination countries, through a range of sources.